- Michael Greene, Dealmakers Eye Safeguards Amid Rising Valuation Challenges (Apr. 18, 2017)
Section 6.2 Conditions to Obligations of Parent and Merger Sub. The respective obligations of Parent, Merger LLC and Merger Sub to effect the Merger are further subject to the satisfaction at or prior to the Effective Time of each of the following conditions, any and all of which may be waived, in whole or in part, by Parent: … (e) Appraisal Rights. No more than 20% of the outstanding Company Common Stock as of the Closing shall be Appraisal Shares.
- John C. Coates, IV, Why Have M&A Contracts Grown? Evidence from Twenty Years of Deals
Over 20 years, M&A contracts have more than doubled in size – from 35 to 88 single-spaced pages in this paper’s font. They have also grown significantly in linguistic complexity – from post-graduate “grade 20” to post-doctoral “grade 30”. A substantial portion (lower bound ~20%) of the growth consists not of mere verbiage but of substantive new terms. These include rational reactions to new legal risks (e.g., SOX, FCPA enforcement, shareholder litigation) as well as to changes in deal and financing markets (e.g., financing conditions, financing covenants, and cooperation covenants; and reverse termination fees). New contract language also includes dispute resolution provisions (e.g., jury waivers, forum selection clauses) that are puzzling not for appearing new but in why they were ever absent. A final, notable set of changes reflect innovative deal terms, such as top-up options, which are associated with a 18-day (~30%) fall in time-to-completion and a 6% improvement in completion rates. Exploratory in nature, this paper frames a variety of questions about how an important class of highly negotiated contracts evolves over time.
- Negotiating Specific Performance and Other Remedies in M&A Deals