If the Second Circuit concludes that, after Kelly, confidential government information does not constitute property, the Court could reverse the convictions on this ground while leaving unaddressed its prior holding that there is no personal benefit requirement in Title 18 insider trader cases. As the petitioners warned the Supreme Court, prosecutors in this scenario would likely treat this silence as a green light to continue to charge insider-trading crimes where there is little to no evidence of a personal benefit to the tipper, or tippee knowledge of that benefit. Of course, under such circumstances, prosecutors would not have the benefit of Blaszczak to rely on, and thus there could be litigation risk to the government depending on the facts of the particular case.
Ernst & Youngによると米国証券取引委員会の職員は、定期的に年次報告書等にコメント（質問）をしてきます。最近、質問事項が多いのは、次の点に対するもののようです。
- Non-GAAP financial measures
- Management’s discussion and analysis
- Revenue recognition
- Segment reporting
- Fair value measurements
- Intangible assets and goodwill
- Inventory and cost of sales
- Income taxes
- NYU School of Law, For Whom is the Corporation Managed?
- Edward Rock, Martin Lipton Professor of Law; Director, Institute for Corporate Governance & Finance, NYU School of Law
- California Bill Requires Companies to Include Directors From Underrepresented Communities on their Boards
On August 30, 2020, the California State Legislature passed a new and unprecedented bill intended to promote greater diversity in corporate boardrooms. If signed into law by the governor, California’s Assembly Bill (AB) 979 would require each publicly held corporation whose principal executive offices are located in California to have a minimum number of directors from an “underrepresented community” on its board of directors.
- Fir Tree Value Master Fund, LP v. Jarden Corp., 2020 WL 3885166, 2020 Del. LEXIS 237 (Del. July 9, 2020)
On appeal, the petitioners argue the Court of Chancery erred as a matter of law when it adopted Jarden’s unaffected market price as fair value because it ignored what petitioners claim is a “long-recognized principle of Delaware law” that a corporation’s stock price does not equal its fair value. They also claim that the court abused its discretion by refusing to give greater weight to a discounted cash flow analysis populated with data selected by petitioners, ignoring market-based evidence of a higher value, and refusing to use the deal price as a “floor” for fair value.
We affirm the Court of Chancery’s judgment finding $48.31 as the fair value of each share of Jarden stock as of the date of the merger. There is no “long-recognized principle” that a corporation’s unaffected stock price cannot equate to fair value. Although it is not often that a corporation’s unaffected market price alone could support fair value, the court here did consider alternative measures of fair value—a comparable companies analysis, market-based evidence, and discounted cash flow models—but ultimately explained its reasons for not relying on that evidence. Finally, Jarden’s sale price does not act as a valuation floor when the petitioners successfully convinced the court that the deal price resulted from a flawed sale process, and the court found Jarden probably captured substantial synergies in the sale price.
When a market is informationally efficient in the sense that the market’s digestion and assessment of all publicly available information concerning a company is quickly impounded into the company’s stock price, the market price is likely to be more informative of fundamental value. And how informative of fundamental value an informationally efficient market is depends, at least in part, on the extent of material nonpublic information. It is a traditional Delaware view that in some cases the price a stock trades at in an efficient market is an important indicator of its economic value and should be given weight.
via Sheppard Mullin
- Scott Callahan, Darius Palia & Eric L. Talley, Appraisal Arbitrage and Shareholder Value, 3 J. L. Fin. & Accounting, 147 (2018)
This paper considers the question of whether the 2007 reforms had the negative repercussions that critics lament, both from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Theoretically, we extend the auction-design framework developed in Choi and Talley (2017) to derive a series of comparative statics related to observable factors concerning M&A transactions and target shareholder welfare. Using this model, we demonstrate that a credible threat of an appraisal action can sometimes constitute a valuable vehicle for augmenting shareholder value, whereby the specter of later appraisal value acts as a credible type of “reserve price” in a company auction. … More significantly, our model delivers testable empirical predictions relating to how “shocks” to the appraisal remedy affect expected shareholder value. In particular, we show that under plausible assumptions as to the status quo ante, a liberalizing shock to appraisal will lead to enhanced target shareholder welfare if it is accompanied by an increase in expected merger premia for appraisal eligible deals.
We then test this (and related) predictions empirically using the 2007 reforms as an appraisal-liberalizing shock. First, we demonstrate (consistent with our model) that deal premia are discernibly higher in appraisal eligible transactions (even when one accounts for the tax status of the deal). Second, we use a difference-in-differences specification to consider the combined effects of the 2007 shocks (Transkaryotic and the amendment of DGCL 262(h)) on deal premia for appraisal-eligible acquisition (using appraisal-ineligible deals as 4Formally, this condition also requires the assumption that under the status quo ante, a control). We find consistent evidence that the liberalizing 2007 shocks were followed by significant increases in premia associated with appraisal eligible deals relative to the control group.
- Salladay v. Lev, 2020 Del. Ch. LEXIS 78, 2020 WL 954032 (Del. Ch. Feb. 27, 2020) (Glasscock, V.C.)
- Paul Weiss writes:
The Delaware Court of Chancery recently confirmed in Salladay v. Lev that conditioning a conflicted (but non-controller) transaction upon approval by a fully empowered, disinterested and independent special committee can restore the business judgment standard of review for the transaction (rather than the more burdensome entire fairness standard that would otherwise apply). However, the court (in an opinion by Vice Chancellor Glasscock) found that such special committee “cleansing” works only if the special committee protections are put in place prior to the commencement of discussions about what might constitute an acceptable price. In Salladay, the court held that the company chairman’s discussions with the acquirer regarding price created a price collar before the special committee was formed that set the tone for future negotiations, and therefore, the special committee’s approval of the transaction did not restore the business judgment standard of review.
Top 10 Corporate and Securities Articlesについて、2019年の結果を追加しました。